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The Radio Archive ~ January - June, 2009

June 25, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Claire Parham on the Construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway." (2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 26:45.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 24:54.
This year marks the 50th anniversary of the completion of the construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project, one of the great infrastructural construction projects of the 20th century. In this interview by Gerald Zahavi, we explore the history of the Project with Claire Puccia Parham, author of the recently published The St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project: An Oral History of the Greatest Construction Show on Earth (Syracuse University Press, 2009). In our conversation, we explore the origins of this bi-national undertaking, dealving especially into lives of the workers who made it possible. Parham, a native of Watertown, NY, currently teaches history at Siena College. She earned a BA degres from St. Lawrence University, received her master's degree from the University of Massachusetts/Amherst and completed her Ph.D. in American history at SUNY Binghamton. She's also the author of From Great Wilderness To Seaway Towns: A Comparative History of Cornwall, Ontario, and Massena, New York, 1784-2001 (SUNY Press, 2004).

Segment 2: "Opening the Seaway: Elizabeth II and President Dwight D. Eisenhower at the Inaugural Ceremonies (June 26, 1959)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 1:11.
Here is a short audio selection from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation containing excerpts from the speeches of Queen Elizabeth II and Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower delivered on the occasion of the official opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway on June 26, 1959. For more information on the Seaway, check out: http://www.greatlakes-seaway.com/en/seaway50/history.html and the wonderful on-line video archive made available by the CBC: http://archives.cbc.ca/economy_business/transport/topics/637/.

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June 18, 2009
Segment 1: "Women Warriors: From Joan of Arc to GI Jane."
Real Media. MP3 unavailable by producer request. Time: 28:26.
This segment from What's the Word?, from the Modern Language Association (MLA) and produced by Sally Placksin, examines Women Warriors from Joan of Arc to GI Jane. As described by the MLA: "From the Greek goddess Athena to the classic comic book character Zena and from Joan of Arc to GI Jane, history, mythology, and contemporary literature and film offer many images of women warriors. Susan Crane takes us back to the Middle Ages with a look at Joan of Arc and the transcripts of her trial for heresy; Shirley Geok-lin Lim talks about Maxine Hong Kingston's book The Woman Warrior and Yvonne Tasker explores the portrayal of a female naval officer in Ridley Scott's 1997 film, GI Jane."

Segment 2 [Re-broadcast]: "Profile of an American Nazi: George Lincoln Rockwell."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 24:43.
Born in Bloomington, Ill. on March 9, 1918, George Lincoln Rockwell went on to found the American Nazi Party. After serving in the military -- the U.S. Navy -- during World War II and the Korean War, Rockwell became a strong supporter of General Douglas MacArthur and began to shift dramatically to the right during the 1950s. Increasingly influenced by far-right antisemitic and anti-black propaganda, Rockwell went on to found the American American Nazi Party in early 1959, and established its headquaters in Arlington, Virginia. The Party was heavily influenced by the former German NSDAP and the ideas of Adolph Hitler. Among Rockwell's many controversial public appearances and speeches was this one which took place at Michigan State University on April 20, 1967, four months before an unstable and disgruntled Party member, John Patler, assassinated Rockwell in an Arlington shopping center. This is an edited selection from Rockwell's Michigan State University speech. The full version is available at the National Archives' Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Records LICON, Special Media Archives Services Division, College Park, MD. For an excellent intrroduction to Rocwell and his his ideas, see Alex Haley's 1966 Playboy interview with him, available at http://www.skrewdriver.net/rockw1.html and various other Web site.

Segment 3 [Re-broadcast]: "American Nazi: Fritz Kuhn and the German-American Bund (Feb. 20, 1939)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 27:51.
Background, from Wikipedia [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German-American_Bund and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Kuhn_(Nazi)] :
"The German-American Bund was an American Nazi organization established in the 1930s. The Bund was originally two organizations established in the US in the 1920s. The NSDAP [National Socialist German Workers' Party] and the Free Society of Teutonia were small groups with only a few hundred members. NSDAP member Heinz Sponknobel eventually consolidated the two groups and created "The Friends of New Germany." Soon after their formation, the Friends came under attack from two fronts. The first was a Jewish boycott of German goods in the heavily German neighborhood of Yorkville on the Upper East Side of New York City. The friends tried to counter this boycott using propaganda and intimidation. The second problem for the American Nazis came from Jewish congressman Samuel Dickstein, who headed an investigation against them. An internal battle was fought for control of the Friends and in 1934, Sponknobel was ousted as leader. At the same time, the Dickstein investigation concluded that the Friends supported a branch of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany in America. After the investigation, Hitler ordered all German nationals to withdraw from the Friends. On March 19, 1936, Hitler placed US citizen Fritz Kuhn [May 15, 1896 - December 14, 1951] at the head of the party in order to make Americans respond more positively. The name Friends of the New Germany was changed to The German-American Bund (Bund meaning federation). After taking over, Kuhn began to attract attention to the Bund through propaganda film strips which outlined the Bund's views. Later that year in 1936, Kuhn with some 50 fellow Nazis boarded a boat to Germany, hoping to receive official recognition from Hitler during the Berlin Olympics. Unfortunately for Kuhn, he was probably the last person Hitler wanted to meet, because Hitler wanted his American Nazis to remain non-aggressive and work quietly. . . . . In 1939, seeking to cripple the Bund, New York City mayor Fiorello La Guardia had the city investigate the Bund's taxes. It found that Kuhn had embezzled over $14,000 from the Bund, spending part of that money on a mistress. Although the Bund did not seek prosecution, District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey pressed charges and won a conviction. This seriously crippled the Bund. During World War II, Kuhn was held by the federal government at an internment camp in Texas. In 1946 he was released and deported to Germany."
See the following site for information on Camp Siegfried, a summer camp the Bund operated on Long Island. Camp Siegried was one of several camps (including Camp Hindenberg) that Kuhn organized where "the children ate, slept, talked, and dreamed Nazism just as the Hitler Jugend did:" http://www.newsday.com/community/guide/lihistory/ny-hs729a,0,7169.story. See also http://www.longwood.k12.ny.us/history/yaphank/german_american_bund.htm. The Audio: This 1939 Bund Rally speech by Bund leader Fritz Kuhn, comes from the Office of Alien Property Custodian records, National Archives. For more information about the audio recording, contact Talking History/University at Albany, or the National Archives' Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Records LICON, Special Media Archives Services Division, College Park, MD.

Segment 4 [Re-broadcast]: From the Archives: "Nazi Eyes on Canada (selection), 1942."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 13:50
J. Frank Willis, one of Canada's greatest radio reporters, also produced many CBC Radio programs during World War II, including Alan King's five-part radio theater series, Nazi Eyes on Canada, with several well-known Hollywood actors. Originally Broadcast in 1942, the play featured Orson Welles, Vincent Price, Helen Hayes, Judith Evelyn, and several other actors taking on the identities of real-life Canadians and portraying their lives as they might be if Germany won the war. The play was based on reports of Nazi spy Colin Ross, made as he travelled throughout Canada in the 1930s reporting back to his Nazi superiors on strategic Canadian vulnerabilities. Ross later became a major Nazi propaganda strategist under Joseph Goebbels during World War II. Here is a short excerpt from the play. For more information about this recording contact The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Archives archives.cbc.ca or Talking History/University at Albany. To obtain a complete copy of the series, contact Scenario Productions at Scenario Productions

Segment 5 [Re-broadcast]: "From the Archives: 'Segro-Country and Western' and the Song Wars of the Civil Rights Era."
Kajun Ku Klux Klan (selection):
Real Media. MP3.
"The Segregation Wagon":
Real Media. MP3.
In the 1960s, as the Civil Rights movement -- the 'singing movement' -- was spreading through the South, a resistance culture emerged that sought to counter the progress of the Civil Rights movement and LBJ's "Great Society." That southern resistance movement, like the Civil Rights movement it opposed, had a strong cultural component, but one generally overlooked by historians and students of the era. Often exploiting the most racist and pejorative stereotypes that pervaded popular and genteel Southern (and Northern) white society, several regional musical movements emerged and produced a counter-integrationist repertoire of songs (as well as jokes and racial parodies). Among the most virulently racist strains of that movement was one that has been called by one writer "Segro- Country and Western" -- associated with, though not exclusively from, Louisiana. One of the record labels that recorded and circulated such music was Jay Miller's Rebel Records (also referred to as Reb Rebel Records) in Crowley, Louisiana. Most of the songs were issued as 45 RPM singles, but Rebel Records also put out one LP compilation of these 45s, titled "For Segregationists Only." It contained such songs (and vocal parodies) as: "Flight NAACP 105" by 'Son of Mississippi,' "Kajun Ku Klux Klan," by Johnny Rebel (actually Clifford 'Pee Wee' Trahan), and "Old Man Moses," by Happy Fats. The record jacket included the following summary of the record's contents: "This long playing album is composed of the best selling 45 RPM singles ever released by Reb Rebel Records. These selections express the feeling, anxiety, confusion and problems of many of our people during the political transformation of our way of life . . . Transformations that have changed peace and tranquility to riots and demonstrations that have changed incentive for self improvement to much dependency on numerous federal 'give away' programs, under the guise of building the 'great society.' For those who take a conservative position on intergration (sic.), this 'great society' program, the controversial war in Viet Nam and the numerous so-called 'Civil Rights' Organizations, this record is a must!" There were dozens and dozens of pro-segregation tunes put out by Miller and other southern studios, including "The Segregation Wagon" (sampled above). For background on Rebel Records and its racist fruits, go to the following link: http://www.ferris.edu/JIMCROW/question/dec06/. On air, we explored several songs (slightly edited); here we present some excerpts and examples of the genre. The "worst" examples are not included. Those interested in learning more about the other side of the Civil Rights movement and its culture, see the previous link and find re-issues of the original 45s and LPs. They are available from several sources on the WWW.

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June 11, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Independent Minds: Winston Churchill -- Into the Storm." (2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3 unavailabe (by producer request). Time: 31:23.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3 Unavailable (by producer request). Time: 23:10.
From Murray Street Productions and producers Stephen Rathe, Matthew Glass, and David Bailes, we bring to you this one hour documentary on Winston's Churchill and World War II. Producers' summary: "Winston Churchill -- known for powerful prose, undaunted persistence, and uncompromising ideals -- led Britain against all odds, to overcome the Nazi's mighty military and its stranglehold on Europe. Independent Minds: Into the Storm follows Churchill into World War II -- from his appointment as Prime Minister through the victory of the Allies to his defeat at the hands of a grateful nation. Join host David D�Arcy with historians, John Keegan, John Lukacs; journalists Michael Lind, Gretchen Rubin, actor Brendan Gleeson, screenwriter Hugh Whitemore and politico Patrick Buchanan. Laced with Churchill�s original speeches, newsreels, newscasts, and dramatic sequences from the new HBO Churchill film, Independent Minds: Into the Storm captures the sweep and irony of history."

Segment 2: "Churchill's 'Iron Curtain' Speech (selection). Fulton, Missouri, )."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 5:03.
Sir Winston Churchill, soon after his lose of power in Great Britain, came to the United States on a visit and to receive an honorary degree from Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri. On March 5, 1946, accompanied by President Harry S. Truman, Churchill delivered what is now considered one of the most important speeches of the Cold War era -- in fact, the speech that for some marked the chronological beginning of that era: his "Sinews of Peace" speech. This is a selection from that speech; for the full text (and audio), see: http://www.hpol.org/churchill/.

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June 4, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "John Hope Franklin on Writing Black History." (1969)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 28:28.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 19:13.
John Hope Franklin, then chair of the University of Chicago History Department, delivered this speech titled "The Future of Negro American History," at The New School in New York City on April 3, 1969. It was recorded by Pacifica Radio affiliate WBAI and first aired on October 18, 1969. In memory of Prof. Franklin, who died of congestive heart failure on March 25th, 2009, we are re-airing this important address by him. Franklin played a seminal role in helping incorporate African American History into the core U.S. History curriculum of American higher education (as well as the nation's secondary schools). He was a prolific writer, producing such important works as: The Emancipation Proclamation, The Militant South, The Free Negro in North Carolina, Reconstruction After the Civil War, A Southern Odyssey: Travelers in the Ante-bellum North, and perhaps his most famous and influential work, which has been revised and updated seven times, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African-Americans. For more information about Franklin and his distinguised career and achievements, see: http://library.duke.edu/specialcollections/franklin/bio.html.

Segment 2: "Hattie McDaniel on The Beulah Show (1952)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 24:50.
This is the audio track of one of the episodes of the 1950's television sitcom "The Beulah Show," which was one of the first sitcoms to feature an African American woman in a lead role. In this episode, aired on August 12th, 1952, Hattie McDaniel, best known for her part in "Gone With The Wind," (she won an academy award for that performance) appeared as Beulah. The show originally aired on radio on CBS (1945-54), and moved to television in 1950, on ABC. It ran until 1953. During that period, three black actresses took the role of "Beulah": Ethel Waters till 1952; Hattie McDaniel, who had originally played the role on the radio show) came on briefly for a few episodes (till cancer forced her to leave); and finally, Louise Beavers joined the show until its demise in 1953. Though the character of Beulah reinforced many black stereotypes, it also permitted Hattie McDaniel and other African American women to break through television's racial barrier -- if only for a brief spell until the post-Civil Rights era. For more information about The Beulah Show, see http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/B/htmlB/beulah/beulah.htm (please note that this article erroneously fails to mention Hattie McDaniel's brief participation on the TV show).

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May 28, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Backstory: Grave Subjects ~ A History of Death and Mourning." (2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 31:40.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 18:53.
In this piece from Backstory, the History guys (Ed Ayers, Peter Onuf, and Brian Balogh) examine the ways that "Americans have remembered their dead, from the Revolutionary War up through the present. When and where the first Memorial Day took place is a matter of much debate. Some say Army veterans created the holiday in the North; others credit Confederate widows in the South. One account points to former slaves in South Carolina who wanted to give fallen Union soldiers a proper burial. What is clear is that in the years following the Civil War, communities all over the country started setting aside a day, usually in the springtime, to honor those who died in the service of their country. . . . Drew Gilpin Faust, historian and president of Harvard University, discusses the cultural impacts of unprecedented levels of death in the American Civil War" and Ayers, Onuf, and Balogh ask: "Have technological and medical advances changed our attitudes about dying? Has death become more invisible, and if so, what are the implications? When did we start burying the dead in park-like settings, and how did modern funeral traditions come into being? Do war memorials tell us more about wartime, or about the peacetime that follows? How have region, class and race influenced the ways Americans die?" For more information about Backstory, and for more information about the themes explored in this episode, go to Backstory's Web site at http://www.backstoryradio.org/.

Segment 2: "George Bernard Shaw on Pacifism (1938)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 2:01.
Irish playwright, critic, and socialist activist George Bernard Shaw was an outspoken pacifist. In this 1938 recording, he explains the meaning of pacifism. For a short biography of Shaw, see: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jshaw.htm.

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May 21, 2009
Segments 1 and 4: "Thurgood Marshall's African Journey: An Interview With Mary Dudziak" (2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 33:49.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 13:09.
Historian Carl Bon Tempo of the University at Albany, SUNY interviewed Mary L. Dudziak, Judge Edward J. and Ruey L. Guirado Professor of Law, History and Political Science at the University of Southern California Law School about her research on Thurgood Marshall�s work with Kenya nationalists in the 1960s. Her work on Marshall was published last year as Exporting American Dreams: Thurgood Marshall's African Journey (Oxford University Press, 2008). Dudziak's interview was conducted at the Univ. at Albany's History and Media Sound Studio for Talking History on Friday, April 24, 2009. She also delivered the annual Phi Alpha Theta lecture at the University at Albany later that day, speaking about "Finding the World in Civil Rights History." Dudziak's other research focuses on international approaches to American legal history and the impact of foreign affairs on civil rights policy during the Cold War. Her next book project will look broadly at the impact of war on American law and politics during the 20th century.

Segment 2: "Thurgood Marshall as a Litigator in Brown v. Board of Education, 1954."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 2:48.
In a series of press conferences conducted in 1954 (before and after the original Brown v. Board of Education civil rights decision by the U.S. Supreme Court on May 17) and 1955 (before and after "Brown II" -- the Supreme Court's May 1955 implementation order to proceed "with all deliberate speed"), Thurgood Marshall, chief counsel for the NAACP's Legal Defense Fund, explained some of what was at stake in the cases that helped eliminate segregation in American schools. This is a selection from one of those press conferences. For an excellent site on Brown v.Board of Education, which includes many primary documents, see the Library of Congress' Web site: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/brown-brown.html. For more on Marshall "before the court," see the excellent American RadioWorks documentary we aired on Sept. 13, 2007 (use our program menu to access this documentary).

Segment 3: "Jack Kerouac Reads from ON THE ROAD."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 3:12.
Short selection -- a preview of a future program we intend to air soon -- from "The Beat Poets Of San Francisco," a 1979 KPFA production focusing on the poetry of the "San Francisco beat scene of the late 50s." It contains recordings of author Jack Kerouac and many of the other beat poets. Here we feature Kerouac (1922-1969) reading a selection from his On The Road (1957).

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May 14, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Pete Seeger: How Can I Keep From Singing, Part 2 ~ Ballads and Folksongs" (2008; 2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3 unavailable by producer request. Time: 27:58.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3 unavailable by producer request.Time: 22:45.
Producer and Seeger biographer, David Dunaway (Across the Tracks: A Route 66 Story; Writing the Southwest), produced this acclaimed documentary, Pete Seeger: How Can I Keep From Singing?, last year. This year, in celebration of Seeger's 90th birthday, he has redistributed the piece and permitted us to make it availabe here on the Talking History Web site. This week we bring you part 2, "Folk Songs and Ballads: Bringing Folk Music Alive," where Dunaway explores "the exciting folk music revival of the 1950s and �60s. It starts at Seeger�s first musical group, The Almanac Singers, who sang labor, peace songs and anti-Nazi songs in 1941. The story continues as Seeger formed the Weavers, a best-selling musical group in the 1950s, before being blacklisted. Throughout controversy, Seeger promoted folk music from many American traditions, a musical Johnny Appleseed. The musical emphasis here is ethnomusicological, on old-timey banjo tunes and on pop-folk crossover songs of the Weavers ('Kisses Sweeter Than Wine,' 'Goodnight Irene')."

Segment 2: "Robert Moses and Post-War Highway and Infrastructure Development" (1953)"
Real Media. MP3. Time: 11:45.
From 1924 until 1968, Robert Moses planned and helped build much of New York's modern road, park, and hydropower infrastructure. Overseeing over 150 billion inflation-adjusted dollars of development projects, he transformed not only New York City's road and bridge systems but also the entire State's. He directed the construction of the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, the Long Island Expressway, hundreds of playgrounds, and over a dozen bridges and tunnels. He was also heavily involved in New York State park development as well as both World Fairs sited in New York City, as well as in the construction of hydropower plants at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River. In this Longines Chronoscope broadcast originally aired on February 11, 1953 (audio -- the original was a television broadcast), Moses is questioned about some of his work as highway and park developer. The entire collection of Longines Chronoscope was donated to the National Archives (NARA) and is now part of the vast collection of public domain broadcasts available at NARA II at College Park, Maryland.

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May 7, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "The Good Mother: A History of American Motherhood." (2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 31:22.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 18:52.
From Backstory: "'Mamas, don�t let your babies grow up to be cowboys. . .' They may not have known it, but when Waylon Jennings & Willie Nelson crooned that line in 1978, they were speaking to a centuries-long paradox in the lives of American mothers. "Mamas, don�t let your babies grow up to be cowboys..." They may not have known it, but when Waylon Jennings & Willie Nelson crooned that line in 1978, they were speaking to a centuries-long paradox in the lives of American mothers. For much of American history, women were excluded from public life, but at the same time, were expected to raise the "good citizens" that kept society functioning. In this hour, the History Guys explore that paradox, and look at the changing expectations of mothers over three centuries. What role did mothers play in the founding period, and how did that role change with the emergence of industrial capitalism? What strategies did enslaved women develop to care for children who could be sold away from them on any given day? How did the "medicalization" of childbirth impact mothering practices in the late 19th century? Has a century's worth of professional parenting advice made mothers' lives easier or just more stressful?" For more information about Backstory, and for more information about the themes explored in this episode, go to Backstory's Web site at http://www.backstoryradio.org/.

Segment 2: "Julia Ward Howe: Peace Activist and Poet"
Real Media. MP3. Time: 3:44.
We revisit Julia Ward Howe in this segment with a compilation of two recordings: the first is a short audio excerpt from Robert Greenwald's short film Mother's Day for Peace (a dramatic reading of Julia Ward Howe�s Mother�s Day Proclamation by Felicity Huffman, Christine Lahti, Fatma Saleh, Ashraf Salimian, Vanessa Williams and Alfre Woodard); and the second, a Librivox [www.librivox.org] reading of Julia Ward Howe's poem "Mother Mind," read by Cori Samuel. Howe was the author of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," but she was far more than that; she was a poet, a reformer, a champion for world peace, a public speaker, and a biographer. Profoundly influenced by the Civil War and particularly by the carnage that accompanied the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, Howe began a world peace crusade and in that year wrote a woman's peace manifesto -- an "appeal to womanhood" to rise up against the brutality of war. She initiated a Mothers' Peace Day observance in her home city, Boston, on the second Sunday in June -- the first American "Mother's Day." Howe funded its celebration for a decade, but the observance never really took hold until it was transfigured and replaced in the early 1900s by a very different sort of celebration, one that did take hold, our present-day Mothers' Day, the creation of Anna Jarvis.

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April 30, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Pete Seeger: How Can I Keep From Singing, Part 1 ~ Origins" (2008; 2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3 unavailable by producer request. Time: 29:00.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3 unavailable by producer request.Time: 23:41.
Producer and Seeger biographer, David Dunaway (Across the Tracks: A Route 66 Story; Writing the Southwest), produced this acclaimed documentary, Pete Seeger: How Can I Keep From Singing?, last year. This year, in celebration of Seeger's 90th birthday, he has redistributed the piece and permitted us to make it availabe here on the Talking History Web site. This week we bring you part 1, "Origins," where Dunaway tackles the question of "How did a Harvard-educated boy become a radical, hitchhiking, banjo-playing, political activist? Program I explores Seeger's youth and America's folk revival of the 1930s and '40s."IN two weeks, we'll bring you part 2, exploring the folk music revival of the 1950s and �60s and Pete Seeger's important catalytic role in that revival.

Segment 2: "Margaret Mead Speaks at First Earth Day Demonstation, New York, April 22, 1970.
Real Media. MP3. Time: 5:30.
From Pactica Radio Archives, we present Margaret Mead's comments at the first Earth Day celebration in New York City on April 22, 1970. Earth Day "was conceived by Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson in 1969 after taking a trip to California to observe the devastation caused by an enormous oil spill off the coast of Santa Barbara. The idea was to organize celebrations around the country that would blend the presentation of academics, scholars, activists, and entertainment to concerns of worldwide pollution and inspire the cleanup of our planet. April 22nd, 1970 marked the first Earth Day celebrations across the globe."

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April 23, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "City of God." (2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 21:29.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 19:05. Francesca Rheannon of Writer's Voice (http://www.writersvoice.net/) interviews Beverly Swerling about the latest of Swerling's historical novels about New York City in the 1830s through the 1850s, City of God. The novel "follows the intertwined loves and dramatic fortunes of two families during the mid-1830�s, the Devreys and the Turners. Along the way, the reader learns about how the city dealt with Abolition, immigration, religion, commerce, and public health. . . . This is New York when one synagogue is no longer adequate for thousands of Jewish immigrants, when New Evangelicals rouse complacent Protestants with the promise of born-again salvation, and when it first sees Catholic nuns and calls them whores of Satan. It is New York when ships bring the fabulous wealth of nations to its wharves and auction houses, while a short distance away rival gangs fight to the death with broken bottles and teeth filed to points."

Segment 2: "Orson Welles Reads from Thomas Paine's The Crisis (1963).
Real Media. MP3. Time: 5:00.
This is a selection of a reading by Orson Welles of Thomas Paine's first issue (December 4, 1776) of The Crisis, a series of pamphlets Paine published between 1776 and 1783 to defend the American Revolution and the patriot's cause. For the full text of all issues of The Crisis, go to: http://www.ushistory.org/Paine/crisis/index.htm.

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April 16, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Confronting the Warpland: Black Poets of Chicago." (2008)
PART 1: Real Media. Time: 22:36. [MP3 Unavailable by request of producer.]
PART 2: Real Media. Time: 36:15. [MP3 Unavailable by request of producer.]
Confronting the Warpland: Black Poets of Chicago, a production of the Poetry Foundation, was written and produced by Ed Herrmann and narrated by Richard Steele. It examines some of the great African American poets of 20th century Chicago, featuring their words and voices. "Beginning with with Great Migration of the early 20th Century, and continuing to contemporary poets, the program features interviews and readings by writers who who have made a unique and crucial contribution to African American literature, including Gwendolyn Brooks, Haki Madhubuti, Sterling Plumpp, Margaret Walker, Quraysh Ali Lansana, and Tyehimba Jess. These writers have vastly different styles and concerns, but all use poetry to examine life in a racially divisive society."

Segment 2: "Carl Sandburg's Cornhuskers." (1919).
Real Media. MP3. Time: 13:57.
This is a selection from a LibriVox recording of "prairie," from Carl Sandburg's Cornhuskers -- read by Betsie Bush. It comes from Carl Sandburg�s collection of 103 poems that earned a Pulitzer Prize Special Letters Award in 1919. For more information about Sandburg, see: http://www.carlsandburg.net/

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April 9, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Backstory: Partisanship and the Press." (2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 31:21.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 18:53.

Another piece from Backstory: "The current era of partisan news and name-calling is enough to make you wonder what happened to good old-fashioned objective reporting. But in this hour, BackStory asks: Where did the idea of media objectivity come from in the first place? Historian Marcus Daniel explains that the bitter rhetoric of editors in the 1790s played a key role in the birth of our democracy. Matthew Goodman tells the story of an elaborate hoax involving 'lunar man-bats' in the early days of the penny press. And Michael Kinsley, founder of the online journal Slate, argues that opinion journalism can be more informative than so-called 'objective' news." For more information about Backstory, and for more information about the themes explored in this episode, go to Backstory's Web site at http://www.backstoryradio.org/.

Segment 2: "The Trial of John Peter Zenger" (circa. 1950).
Real Media. MP3. Time: 2:35.
This is a brief selection from "The Trial of Peter Zenger," a dramatic documentary first produced around 1950 as part of the New York State Bureau of Social Studies (Education Department) series titled "The Price of Liberty." The series consisted of dramatic documentaries reconstructing (with actors) key events in American and New York history and was produced as an educational tool and for radio broadcast by the Junior Leagues of Albany in cooperation with the State Education Department. According to the New York State Archives, the recordings may have been connected to the popular "Freedom Train" movement of the early 1950s: "In 1949 a Temporary State Commission for the New York State Freedom Train was established and historical documents celebrating American liberty were sent on tour. In conjunction with such efforts, suggestions to elementary school teachers for teaching about freedom were produced by the Education Department." This recording comes from a set of 16" transcription disks donated to Talking History / University at Albany and the UAlbany Library; another set can be found in the New York State Archives, and consists of "twelve recorded segments, each contained on one side of a 16-inch, 33 1/3 rpm sound disk. They are entitled: the Iroquois Confederacy; Flushing Remonstrance; Trial of John Peter Zenger; Sir William Johnson; Coxsackie Remonstrance; Battle of Oriskany; New York Becomes a State; the Story of Transportation; the Story of Agriculture; the Story of Industry; the Story of Free Education; and the Story of World Trade." For more information, contact Talking History / University at Albany or the New York State Archives, Cultural Education Center, Albany, NY.

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April 2, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "William Shakespeare: This Was a Man" (Parts 4 and 5)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 26:41.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 29:42.
From Pacifica's From the Vault radio series, we present the final two parts of "William Shakespeare: This Was a Man," a Pacifica Radio production which was first aired as a five part series in 1964, on the 400th anniversary of the birth of William Shakespeare. See previous two weeks for more details on the documentary.

Segment 2: "Allen Ginsberg on John Donne" (1975).
Real Media. MP3. Time: 2:55.
This is poet Allen Ginsberg discussing the work of Shakespeare's contemporaries -- John Donne. Ginsberg reads one of Donne's most famous poems, commenting on several of its linguistic and allegorical elements. His discussion was part of a class on the history of poetry which he offered at Naropa University in Boulder, Colorado in the summer of 1975. In the class, Ginsberg discussed the 17th century metaphysical poets and specifically the works of John Donne and Andrew Marvel. For a recording of the entire class, go to the Naropa University Archive Project recording available through www.archive.org at: Allen_Ginsberg_class_The_history_of_poetry_part_11_June_1975_75P010A.

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March 26, 2009
Segment 1: "William Shakespeare: This Was a Man" (Part 3)
Real Media. MP3. Time: 23:44.
From Pacifica's From the Vault radio series, we continue with part 3 of the original "William Shakespeare: This Was a Man" documentary, a Pacifica Radio production which was first aired as a five part series in 1964, on the 400th anniversary of the birth of William Shakespeare. It was edited and produced by KPFK-Los Angeles producers Ruth Hirschman and Lee Whiting in collaboration with John Monteverdi. "This was a Man" explored the personal life, work, and legacy of William Shakespeare and did it so effectively that it was awarded the 1965 Ohio State Award for Broadcast Journalism. We have deleted some of the contemporary commentary on this production; for the full From the Vault program, go to their Web site, at: FROM THE VAULT.

Segment 2: "From the Archives: The Letters of Heloise and Abelard."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 10:15.
As a prefatory bridge to our examination of women in the medieval era, we look back at what some scholars have argued is one the seminal texts reflecting the rise of romantic love during the Middle Ages, the letters between Pierre Abelard and Heloise. Both were prominent intellectuals of twelfth century France. The former was of noble birth, and the senior of Heloise by eighteen years. Not much is known about Heloise's parents (hence she is always referred to by her first name). Heloise, as one commentator described her, was a "strong-willed and gifted woman who was fluent in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, and came from a lower social standing than Abelard." Both were much respected by their peers." Abelard was a sought after lecturer in philosophy but his views often ran counter to those of the Church hierarchy. This reading of one of Heloise's letters to Abelard (which comes to us from LibriVox) refers to the costs Abelard paid for his many divergences from orthodoxy. Ironically, most people know little about the content of Abelard's ideas -- or those of Heloise. The two are know mainly for their relationship to one another and for the record they kept of that relationship. At age 19, while living under her uncle Fulbert�s roof, Heloise fell in love with Abelard, who had been hired by Fulbert to serve as her tutor. Their romantic relationship yielded a child, Astrolabe. The rest of the story diverges in detail, depending on the historian, but scholars agree that it ended with the tragic separation of the two lovers and the castration of Abelard. Heloise entered a convent and became an abbess; Abelard was exiled to Brittany, where he lived as a monk. It was under these circumstances of physical separation that they wrote each other, thus leaving behind a chronicle of their love and a document that scholars of the Middle Ages have long studied and taught. For a translation of The Love Letters of Abelard and Heloise, see http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/aah/index.htm.

Segment 3: "Medieval Women" (2009)."
Real Media. No MP3 available, by request of the producer.
Time: 28:53.
This production, produced by Sally Placksin as part of the Modern Langauge Association's What's the Word? radio series, focuses on medieval women. As described by the producers, it's "a literary view of the lifestyles of medieval women. Have you ever thought about what your life would have been like if you had been a woman in the Middle Ages? What kinds of opportunities you would have had? What kind of work you might have done? Typically, we think of the Middle Ages as a time that offered women very few options--but you might be surprised by some of the accomplishments of medieval women. Marie Boroff talks about one of Chaucer's most famous--and feisty--characters in _The Canterbury Tales_, the Wife of Bath; Barbara Newman talks about religious lifestyles of medieval women and shares works by the twelfth-century German nun Hildegard of Bingen; and C. Jean Dangler talks about women healers in medieval Spain."

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March 19, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "William Shakespeare: This Was a Man" (Parts 1 and 2)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 31:56.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 18:54.
From Pacifica's From the Vault radio series, we present "William Shakespeare: This Was a Man," a Pacifica Radio production which was first aired as a five part series in 1964, on the 400th anniversary of the birth of William Shakespeare. It was edited and produced by KPFK-Los Angeles producers Ruth Hirschman and Lee Whiting in collaboration with John Monteverdi. "This was a Man" explored the personal life, work, and legacy of William Shakespeare and did it so effectively that it was awarded the 1965 Ohio State Award for Broadcast Journalism. Today we present the first two segments of the original production. We have deleted some of the contemporary commentary on this production; for the full From the Vault program, go to their Web site, at: FROM THE VAULT.

Segment 2: "Paul Robeson's Othello" (1965).
Real Media. MP3. Time: 2:09.
From the Vault also aired this piece along with their re-broadcast of "This Was a Man": Paul Robeson, in one of his last major public appearances, reciting a scene from Shakespeare�s Othello (Act 5, Scene 2) at the Americana Hotel in New York City in April 22, 1965. Robeson was attending a tribute dinner in his honor sponsored by Freedomways Magazine.

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March 12, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Backstory: Laboratories of Democracy ~ The State of the States" (2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 31:56.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 18:54.
Another piece from Backstory: "How much do states really matter in the 21st century? The celebration in February of Abraham Lincoln's bicentennial was in many ways a celebration of our nation�s very survival. But one of the questions that defined Lincoln�s presidency is still very much with us: How do we reconcile the two halves of our name, �United� and �States?� Did the Founders intend for the federal government to be a check on state government? Or was the idea that state governments would be the best representatives of their citizens� needs? In this episode of BackStory, the History Guys take on the idea of �federalism,� and consider the ways that it has shaped American history."

Segment 2: "1857: The Dred Scott Case" (1995).
Real Media. MP3. Time: 3:50.
This dramatic historical audio piece, focusing on the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision of 1857, comes to us from a radio presentation titled "The History Show: 1857" -- written, directed, and produced by James David Moran of the American Antiquarian Society. The show -- in the format of a "a radio variety show" that brings to life "a year in American history through the humor, music and recreation of significant events" -- offered a live and radio listening audience, a "comprehensive picture of what life was like in the year 1857." This was one of two pilot shows that were produced in the autumn of 1995 and distributed to radio stations around the U.S. a year later. The presentations were recorded live in Mechanics Hall in Worcester, Massachusetts. To access the full segment focusing on Dred Scott (22 minutes), go to: http://www.teachushistory.org/dred-scott-decision/overview. You'll also be bale to learn more about the case there.

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March 5, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "The First African American in The Hudson Valley ~ Juan "Jan" Rodrigues" (2004)
From Eric V. Tait, Jr. and EVT Educational Productions, Inc., we bring you an episode of "Then I'll Be Free To Travel Home-the Legacy of the New York African Burial Ground" series. This episode, titled "Juan "Jan" Rodrigues, the First Free African in the Hudson Valley (1612-1614)" examines the life and career of Juan "Jan" Rodrigues: "Before slavery rears its ugly head in North America, Africans and people of African descent traversed the northeastern part of the continent as free entrepreneurs - traders, guides and interpreters; men such as Matthieu Da Costa, and "Jan" Rodrigues. Who they were - especially Rodrigues, the man the Dutch called 'The Mulatto' - how they interacted with the Europeans and Native Americans, their value and impact, is the heart of Segment #2" of "Then I'll Be Free to Travel Home."

Segment 2: From the Archives ~ The History of the Urban League (Sidney Williams, Chicago Urban League, 1950).
Real Media. MP3. Time: 10:01.
The Urban League, founded in 1910 as the Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes in New York, is -- along with the NAACP -- one of the oldest African American civil rights organizations in the U.S. Devoted to research, advocacy, and social service, the organization was established by a group of sociologists, social workers, and philanthropists and was specifically created to address the many economic and social problems that black migrants faced as they moved from the South and into northern urban communities. This short (and somewhat scripted) interview with the director of the Chicago Urban League, Sidney Williams (1947-1956) was broadcast as the concluding segment of an episode of Destination Freedom in 1950. Williams describes some of the history and work of the Urban League in general and the Chicago Urban league specifically.

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February 26, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Backstory: Presidential Transitions (2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 30:48.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 18:51.
From Backstory and "The American History Guys," we bring you the following discussion on presidential power and influence title "The More Things Change - Presidential Transitions." The show focuses on the short and long-term legacies of various presidents in U.S. history, exploring the extent to which individual presidents were able to transform the nation and their predecessor's influence, noting that "even the best-laid presidential plans have been stymied by economic, geopolitical, and legislative constraints." Brian Balogh, Peter Onuf, and Ed Ayers ask "Do presidential transitions deserve all the attention they tend to get? Why do we mark time by presidencies when key events often have little to do with them? Which transitions have brought real change? Do great presidents shape history, or is it the other way around?" Historian Michael Holt of the Univ. of Virginia joins Balogh, Onuf, and Ayers to explore the influence of James Polk and other lesser-known presidents.

Segment 2: From the Archives: Leif Erikson" (1941).
Real Media. MP3. Time: 26:14.
Continuing one of our themes this year -- in commemoration of the exploration of the Hudson River and Lake Champlain 400 years ago by Henry Hudson and Samuel de Champlain, we present our listeners with this 1941 broadcast of Cavalcade of America focusing on Lief Ericson (970-1020), son of Erik the Red, who explored Labrador and coastal Canada and established the first European settlement in North American in Newfoundland ("Vinland") around the year 1003. Cavalcade of America was a documentary radio drama series broadcast between 1935 and 1953. It ran on TV from 1952 to 1957. Cavalcade presented biographical and historical segments, often accompanied by original scores or songs. For more information about the series contact Talking History/University at Albany, or the National Archives' Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Records LICON, Special Media Archives Services Division, College Park, MD.

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February 19, 2009
Segment 1: "Prof. Joe Trotter on 'African Americans in Pittsburgh Since World War II' ~ Oral History Association Plenary Talk (October 17, 2008)"
Real Media. MP3. Time: 37:09.
Prof. Joe Trotter, head of Carnegie Mellon University's History Department and the founding director of Carnegie Mellon's Center for Africanamerican Urban Studies and the Economy (CAUSE)is a nationally recognized scholar of African American history. He is the author of Black Milwaukee: The Making of an Industrial Proletariat, 1915-1945, Coal, Class, and Color: Blacks in Southern West Virginia, 1915-32, and River Jordan: African American Urban Life in the Ohio Valley. This talk, delivered on October 17, 2008 as a plenary speech at the Oral History Association annual meeting and conference, is drawn from his work with CAUSE on an Oral History project focusing on a history of African American life in Pittsburgh since World War II -- a project commemorating Pittsburgh's 250th anniversary.

Segment 2: "From the Archives: Major John Wesley Powell's Explorations of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon"(1939)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 29:59.
John Wesley Powell is best remembered for his role in exploring the American West and his famous 1969 geographic expedition down the Green and Colorado rivers, which included the first river run through the Grand Canyon. Here, we bring you a 1939 documentary produced by the Department of the Interior -- as part of their "What Price America" series -- focusing on Powell's explorations of the Green and Colorado rivers. In 1871, Powell revisited the rivers in a second exploration, this one more concerned with mapping, photographing, and studying the region in depth. For more information on Powell and his work, see: http://www.nps.gov/archive/grca/photos/powell/pages/career.htm and :http://www.powellmuseum.org/MajorPowell.html.

Segment 3: "The Last Civil War Widows" (1998)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 11:37.
From Talking History contributing producer Joe Richman, we bring back The Last Civil War Widows, originally produced and aired on National Public Radio's All Things Considered in 1998. "On July 1, 1863, Union troops clashed with Confederates at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The fighting at Gettysburg would mark the beginning of the end for the Confederacy. At that same battlefield on July 1, 1997, Daisy Anderson and Alberta Martin first met. They had come to Gettysburg to be honored as the last known living Civil War widows. Both women married in their early 20s. Their husbands were near 80. Alberta Martin and Daisy Anderson were of course not alive during the Civil War, but they married into history. Producer Joe Richman visited both women and put together an oral history of these two Civil War widows."

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February 12, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Tell Me a (Radical) Story: 20th Century Radical Children's Literature" (2009)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 31:35.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 11:32.
Julia Mickenberg is the author of Learning from the Left: Children's Literature, the Cold War, and Radical Politics in the United States (Oxford U. Press, 2005); she is also co-editor, with Philip Nel, of Tales for Little Rebels: A Collection of Radical Children's Literature (foreword by Jack Zipes; New York University Press, 2008). Pacifica's Against the Grain's C.S. Soong interviews the two, discussing an often neglected body of left-wing children's literature promoting nonviolence and social justice, and attacking bigotry and war.

Segment 2: "L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" (1900; recent LibriVox recording)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 7:29.
Here -- from LibriVox -- is a reading of a selection from chapter 5 of L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, one of the most famous Englsh language children's books written in the 20th century. The book was published in 1900 and has been the subject of much scholarly speculation about the allegorical and symbolic meaning of many of its central characters and events. For a short overview of some of these speculations -- linking Baum's work (including the many Oz books that followed The Wonderful Wizard of Oz) to economic depressions, labor and populist uprisings, and late 19th century/early 20th century feminism, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_interpretations_of_The_Wonderful_Wizard_of_Oz.

Segment 4: "Victoria Woodhull: The First Woman to Run for President." 2008.
Real Media. MP3. Time: 7:20.
"Victoria Woodhull: The First Woman to Run for President" is produced by Joe Richman and Radio Diaries. It was first aired last fall by NPR, as part of tbeir political Contenders series. With Richman's permission, we bring it to you once again. "In the 19th century, Victoria Woodhull was many things: a clairvoyant, a businesswoman, an advocate for women's rights and sexual freedom, and a magnet for media attention and scandal. Her 1872 campaign came at a time when most women did not even have the right to vote."

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February 5, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Good Friday, 1865: Lincoln's Last Day" (2007)
PART 1: Real Media. MP3. Time: 26:26.
PART 2: Real Media. MP3. Time: 31:55.
Today, we bring you this gem from Quicksilver Radio Theater, "Good Friday, 1865: Lincoln's Last Day," a dramatic radio play based on documentary sources reconstructing the last day of Abraham Lincoln's life. "The character of a country, and its President, are revealed -- as a traumatic war winds down, and eerie events presage Abraham Lincoln's own end. Produced before a live audience at The Museum of Television and Radio (Paley Center for Media) in New York, this original audio docudrama by producer Craig Wichman is the recipient of a National Audio Theatre BEST SCRIPT "GRAND PRIZE." Mr. Wichman plays the 16th President, and Katie Nutt is Mary Todd Lincoln, in a cast that includes John O. Donnell, Emma Palzere, Vito LaBella, Derek Lively, Dan Renkin, Bernadette Fiorella, and John Prave. Directed by Jay Stern (Independent Feature, THE CHANGELING); Music by TONY AWARD-winning Composer Mark Hollmann, with Kathy McDonald and Darren Wilkes; Sound Effects by Sue Zizza and David Shinn (Sue Media); Engineering by Dominick Barbera, with John Kiehl (Soundtrack NY.)"

Segment 2: "O Captain, My Captain!" (1865; 2008 Librivox Recording)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 2:11.
Soon after Abraham Lincoln's assassination on April 14, 1865, Walt Whitman wrote this poem about him and the crises through which he navigated the nation. For more about Lincoln's assassination and the poem, see: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln_assassination and http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm013.html.

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January 27, 2009
Segment 1: "Joshua David Hawley on Theodore Roosevelt as a Preacher of Righteousness" (Dialogue, 2008).
Real Media. MP3. Time: 27:13.
Dialogue's George Liston Seay interviews Joshua David Hawley, author of Theodore Roosevelt Preacher of Righteousness: "From his birth in 1858 to his death in 1919 the United States was engaged in an accelerated process of maturation. Settling its vast interior, welcoming hordes of new immigrants and rapidly urbanizing; the country was preparing for a 20th Century role as a world power. Theodore Roosevelt�s own maturation paralleled his country�s. He raised his commitment to a muscular Christianity and belief in righteousness to the level of a political philosophy. Eventually, his vision of the state as moral arbiter for the people became the theme of his progressivism. Joshua Hawley explains the strengths and flows of Roosevelt�s vision."

Segment 2: "Theodore Roosevelt Speaks During the 1912 Election: On Social and Economic Justice and the Courts (1912)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 3:45.
In this brief speech recorded during the 1912 presidential campaign on an Edison wax cylinder -- and copie and circulated around the country in what some have called the first first audio "media campaign" -- Theodore Roosevelt criticized the courts and spoke about social and economic reforms that he felt should be implemented in the nation. Beginning roughly with the landmark case, Lochner v. New York (1905) -- actually much earlier -- the Supreme Court had begun to aggresively challenge state intiatives in regulating conditions of labor, asserting that the 14th Amendment's due process clause restricted state action as interference with the right of contract. In Lochner v. New York, Joseph Lochner, owner of a bakery in Utica, NY, who had been fined $50 for violation of the 1896 state law limiting bakery workers to a 10-hour day, 60-hour work week. Lochner had lost in state courts but won his Supreme Court appeal. For more information on Theodore Roosevelt's view of state power and the need to restrict activist courts -- and on the Lochner case -- see: http://www.theodoreroosevelt.org/ and Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography (1913), available on line at: http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/3335 and through Google Books.

Segment 3: "Alice: Stacy Cordery on Alice Roosevelt Longworth" (Dialogue, 2008)."
Real Media. MP3.
Time: 26:56.
Stacy Cordery, author of Alice: Alice Roosevelt from White House Princess to Washington Power Broker (2007), joins Dialogue'sGeorge Liston Seay in a discussion of the life and career of Alice Roosevelt Longworth, Theodore Roosevelt's daughter. Alice Roosevelt "carved out a unique place in the social and political life of Washington D.C. As first daughter she was 'Princess Alice'; for decades she was a magnet for the political elite of the nation, who competed for a place at her elegant dinners. But at every point of her life she fought fiercely for the 'Bull Moose' principles of her father."

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January 22, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Backstory: From Whales to Wind ~ A History of Energy"
Real Media. MP3. Time: 32:33.
Real Media. MP3. Time: 18:52.
Backstory's Brian Balogh, Peter Onuf, and Ed Ayers look at U.S. energy history: "Three decades after Jimmy Carter donned his famous cardigan and asked Americans to go on an energy diet, the U.S. is consuming more energy than ever. But "energy independence" was a major issue in the recent presidential race, and with a consensus emerging about the risks of global warming, there are signs we might finally be on the brink of a change. Join the History Guys as they reflect on our energy past. How did Americans think about their fuel sources two hundred years ago? Was scarcity a concern back then? When it comes to the search for new energy technologies, how willing have we been to embrace change, and how have those changes shaped the rest of our lives? And � when did we become such energy gluttons?"

Segment 2: "Jimmy Carter on U.S. Energy Policy (1977)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 24:33.
Soon after taking office in 1977, Jimmy Carter spoke on radio to the American people about the need for conservation and the imperative to dramatically address the nation's energy woes. He spoke about these matters and his plans to create a new cabinet-level department to address energy issues in general: the Dept. of Energy.

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January 15, 2009
Segment 1: "First Fireside Chats: FDR in Albany" (2008).
Real Media. MP3. Time: 20:21.
On March 12 1933, eight days after taking the oath of office, President Franklin D. Roosevelt took his place behind national radio network microphones to deliver what is commonly considered the first of his celebrated "Fireside Chats." His paternal, colloquial style, which helped soothe a troubled nation's fears, was not a sudden, propitious addition to his political war chest. Rather, Roosevelt had spent four years crafting and refining his broadcasting skills. Though many have acknowledged Roosevelt's mastery of the medium and the significance of his judicious use of the airwaves during his presidency, his early employment of radio as a political forum has been largely overlooked. Drawing upon archival research conducted primarily at the Schenectady Museum and the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library, Geoffrey Storm, a doctoral student at the Univesity at Albany, SUNY, produced this radio documentary examining Roosevelt's use of radio during his two terms as Governor of New York State. During this period, Roosevelt used Schenectady radio station WGY and its statewide network as his primary venues for "taking the issues to the people" to skirt an obstructionist Republican legislature. The piece provides analysis of the content of Roosevelt's radio addresses to trace the development of his broadcasting style and features expert commentary from University at Albany professors of history and communication. Public reaction from Capitol Region residents (performed by readers) illuminates Depression-era conditions and indicates an early instance of the intimate bond established between Roosevelt and his listeners. The documentary locates the origins of Roosevelt's Fireside Chat technique in his gubernatorial addresses and places New York State and its Capitol Region at an important intersection in the history of American political broadcasting.

Segment 2: "From the Archives: Robert F. Wagner, Jr. on Service and Politics" (1973)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 6:13.
Here is a short edited excerpt from a 54 minute interview by Don Swain of former New York City mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr., conducted back in 1973. For more information about Wagner and his equally famous father, New York Senator Robert F. Wagner, go to: http://www.nyc.gov/html/nyc100/html/classroom/hist_info/mayors.html#wagner, the New York Times obituary of Wagner Jr., and this short biography of Robert F. Wagner (Sr.). See also J. Jospeh Huthmacher, Senator Robert F. Wagner and the Rise of Urban Liberalism (New York: Atheneum, 1968). For the full interview with Robert F. Wagner Jr., which we are restricted from providing on our own site, go to: http://wiredforbooks.org/robertwagner/index.htm.

Segment 3: "Ten Cents a Dance (2008)."
Real Media. MP3.
Time: 29:53.
From VFH Radio's series With Good Reason, we present this examination of popular music during the Great Depression and a look at the New Deal. Here is a short show summary from With Good Reason: "During and despite the Great Depression, the entertainment industry was working overtime. Listen to some of the gems and the stories behind them. During and despite the Great Depression, the entertainment industry was working overtime. The roughest years in American history produced what many consider the greatest era of popular music. Elliot Majerczyk looks at the songs that became the soundtrack of the �lost generation� and helped pull America through the hard times. He says that given the state of the economy, we may get to hear more songs like these in the near future. Also: Historians Nigel Sellars and Eric Rauchway explain that Roosevelt�s New Deal originally focused on regulation and stimulating the industrial economy. It was not until 1935 when the Second New Deal began putting millions of people to work that most Americans felt relief from the Great Depression.

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January 8, 2009
Segments 1 and 3: "Backstory: Panic ~ Financial Panics in History. (2008)"
Real Media. MP3. Time: 31:26.
Real Media. MP3. Time: 18:54.
Here's another recent production from Backstory, focusing on financial panics in America's past: "Speculation... deregulation... crash... bailout. Sound familiar? Probably. Sound modern? It shouldn�t. Everyone knows about the Great Depression, but the crises of 1819, 1837, 1857, 1893 and 1907 were all surprisingly similar. Each time, ordinary Americans got used to the good times, overextended themselves, and were left holding the bag when the bottom fell out of the market and the banks called in their debts. And yet, every generation brings a newfound confidence that we�ve finally beaten the business cycle. On this week�s show, the History Guys explore the long history of financial collapse. They find that while the causes of financial panics tend to be strikingly similar, the crises have generated very different responses, and spawned many of the major social, religious, and political movements of the past 200 years. So, what does history have to teach us about our current financial crisis? In a market-driven system, are there any other paths we could take? Or are we bound to repeat the mistakes of the past?"

Segment 2: "Jim Garland's "I Don't Want Your Millions Mister" (1966)."
Real Media. MP3. Time: 3:17.
Here is a musical selection by Jim Garland, from his appearance on the television show Rainbow Quest in 1967, just a few weeks before the termination of that TV series. Garland performs one of the classics that he wrote: "I Don't Want Your Millions Mister." The song was written during the Great Depression, one of many songs that captured working class resentments and hopes during that era. Garland was part of a gifted Appalachian musical family -- one that included his older half sister, Aunt Molly Jackson. Garland had been a a member of the Communist party in Kentucky in the 1930s, and was actively involved in organizing miners and textile workers in that state as part of the Workers Alliance. He often relied on songs to publicize and focus workers' attention on the injustices all around them and to galvanize their activism. In the mid-1960s, he appeared on Pete Seeger's UHF television show, Rainbow's Quest, which Seeger had begun after years of being blacklisted. As one on-line source (http://www.richardandmimi.com/rainbowquest.htmll) explained: "Back in the mid-sixties Pete Seeger had an educational TV show called Rainbow Quest. In 1962 the Court of Appeals had ruled that the House Un-American Activities Committee was faulty in its charges against Seeger and dismissed the case against him. With his newfound freedom, Pete was anxious to appear on TV again and promote the cause of folk music. But in spite of the court ruling, networks and sponsors were still wary. The producers of the new show Hootenany claimed that they wanted Seeger, but that the sponsors weren't willing; and the sponsors claimed they wanted Seeger on the show, but that the public wouldn't stand for it. Following the do-it-yourself ethic of folk music, Seeger finally decided to start his own show, Rainbow Quest. It began on UHF channel 47 in New York and had only been picked up by seven stations when Seeger began to run out of funds. During its brief run of 38 episodes, Pete talked and strummed with such guests as Elizabeth Cotten, Patrick Sky, Donovan, Judy Collins, and Buffy Sainte Marie. . . ."

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January 1, 2009
Segment 1: From the Archives: "David Ben Gurion on the Jews and Palestine" (1947). [PAST BROADCAST]
Real Media. MP3. Time: 6:17
London Speech by David Ben Gurion (1886-1973), probably delivered before the Jewish Agency for Palestine, and used on the jointy produced ABC/Town Hall New York radio forum titled "America's Town Meeting of the Air" (it migrated to television in 1948). This address was broadcast on June 12, 1947, as part of series of broadcasts on the "Palestine problem." In his address, Ben Gurion argues the case for a Jewish homeland. The following year, the state of Israel was established. At the time he delivered this address, Ben Gurion was the Chairman of the Exectuive Committee of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, an organization founded in 1929 and devoted to promoting and protecting the rights of the Jewish community in British-occupied Palestine. When Israel became a nation in 1948, many of the leaders of the Jewish Agency became overnight leaders of the new state. For a short biography of Ben Gurion, go to: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Ben-Gurion. For more information about this recording contact Talking History/University at Albany, or the National Archives' Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Records LICON, Special Media Archives Services Division, College Park, MD.

Segment 2: "From the Archives: 'Abba Eban on Intolerance and Prejudice' ~ Selections from an interview on Ladies of the Press (3-17-1964)." [PAST BROADCAST]
Real Media. MP3. Time: 2:13.
Cambridge-educated Abba Eban was one of Israel's most highly respected and astute Israeli statesman of the 20th century. He served as Israel's first ambassador to the UN from 1949 to 1959, and foreign minister between 1966-1974. In the interim, he served as Minister of Education and Culture from 1960 to 1963, during which he confronted some of the racial and ethnic hatreds that were perpetuated in many of the Jewish and Arab schools of the nation. In these short selections from an interview conducted with him on the "Ladies of the Press" television series in 1964, Eban addresses the perpetuation of anti-Jewish and anti-Arab prejudics.

Segment 3: From the Archives: "Senator Robert F. Kennedy on the Plight of the American Indian (April 19, 1968)." [PAST BROADCAST]
Real Media. MP3. Time: 28:44.
This interview with Senator Robert F. Kennedy -- conducted less than three months before his assassination -- was produced and distributed by the National Educational Radio Network (NERN) in 1968. It was first aired as a segment of the series "NER Washington Forum." Vic Sussman, at that time National Educational Radio's Public Affairs Director, conducted the interview. For more information about this audio recording, contact Talking History/University at Albany, or the National Archives' Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Records LICON, Special Media Archives Services Division, College Park, MD.

Segment 4: From the Archives: "Albert Einstein Speaks on World Government to Northwestern University Students (May 9, 1946)." [PAST BROADCAST]
Real Media. MP3. Time: 12:36
An address by Albert Einstein on the necessity of world government. Recorded and broadcast over radio on May 9, 1946. For more information about this audio recording, contact Talking History/University at Albany, or the National Archives' Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Records LICON, Special Media Archives Services Division, College Park, MD.

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